Chapter 7, Europe
 

The Europe Quiz -  great practice!

Modern world economic system established in Europe
1400s - mercantile capitalism
1700s - industrial capitalism 
post WWII - new core areas

geographic differentiation - complex
         - modern development 
         - historic patterns
         - dynamic!
 

Map of Europe

SUB REGIONS

Northern Europe 
Briksdal Glacier, Jostedalsbreen National Park, Norway
Largest glacial ice cap in Europe

Western Europe
English countryside

Alpine Europe
Alps

Mediterranean Europe

Cliff village in Spain

Eastern Europe
  Farmland in Poland

Balkan Europe

Gutted cottage in Kosovo

CHALLENGE AND CHANGE

cycles of growth and destruction/stagnation
migration

Divisions and Integration

5000 years ago - wars, invasions, migrations
Celts, Greeks, Romans
Germans, Moors, Franks
~ 800s A.D. - rise of national sentiment

EUROPE GOES GLOBAL 

Exploration and trade
Mercantile capitalism 
Colonization 

Industrial Revolution - Great Britain 1700s

Loading coal onto barge

     - prompted by wealth and expanded markets 
     - founded in coal areas
     - concentration of workers and factories --> urbanization 
    (e.g., Britain: 1800=9% urban; 1900=62% urban; 1990s=90%+ urban)
     - Was this technology transferred to the colonies?
     - US and Japan did acquire technology and R&D

WORLD WARS AND GLOBAL ECONOMIC CHANGES

1900s - 2 World Wars --> reduced economies
Rise of U.S., USSR --> Cold War
Rise of Japan -- new core
assisted by U.S. in recovering
transition to consumer goods, high technology, service sector
Eurostar Chunnel train

decline of old industrial centers

EXPANDING EUROPE, DYNAMIC EUROPE 

European Union (EU)
     - originated in quest for peace
     - attempt to engender economic inter-reliance among European nations

North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) - what to do after the fall?

Expansion of EU/ NATO eastward
     - Why would the Russians be unhappy about this? 
     - high standards for entry
     - problems of expansion
 
 

Berlin Wall, circa 1960

Fall of the Berlin Wall, 1989

A nation-state is defined as a political unit with clearly delineated borders, substantial population; people consider themselves as members of a nation. (mid 1800s)

Nationalism (e.g., Germany, Poland)
Supranationalism (e.g., European Union, euro)
Micronationalism (e.g., Bosnia, Kosovo)

What are some risks of each of these?

  Vienna, Austria

Devolution: what are some examples of it in Europe? How do originally religious or linguistic differences (for example) turn into political issues? How can historic movements of people (invasions, migrations, intentional movements by governments) serve as the root for discord decades or even centuries later?

The European Contradiction: Supranationalism versus Devolution 

NATURAL ENVIRONMENT

Climate 

wide range of climates, topography, vegetation, and soils
rapid north-south changes (climatic variety)
proximity to ocean
North Atlantic Drift
midlatitude west coast climates
mediterranean climate
Climatic fluctuations

What kind of climate would you expect in the interior?

Geology
Alps - how were they formed?
North European Plain
Extensive coastline & peninsulas 
Tectonics 
click on image to see a very interesting process...

Rivers 
Europe has many rivers and it has traditionally relied on them heavily. What are some of the advantages of rivers?


The Danube flows through more countries than any other river on Earth.


The Rhine River is the world's busiest waterway. Why? (hint: think core-periphery)

How would having such a coastline and such rivers be linked to a high degree of 
interaction within Europe and with outsiders?

Environmental Issues 

forests to farms
industrialization
communism
Mediterranean
waste management


North Sea oil and gas map                               Polluted river, United Kingdom
 


Forest damaged by acid rain

Map of Chernobyl radiation hotshots     The Environment in Europe since 1970