Chapter 5, Southern Asia



Periphery with Deferred Promise
Diverse Cultures 
Precolonial Cultures
Buddhism and Hinduism
Colonial Impacts
British Indian Empire
Paths to Independence
Natural Environment
Monsoon Climates
World's Highest Mountains 
Peninsular Hills and Plateaus 
Major River Basins
Forests and Soils
Natural Resources
Environmental Problems


Political map of Southern Asia

   Indian Subcontinent 
   World's 2nd poorest region
   High population density
   Extremes and near crises: wealth, education, technology, instability 
   22% world population on 4.3% world land = 1% GDP 
   Post-colonial isolation 


Precolonial Cultures

Temple doors (c. 1600 B.C.)

a world cultural hearth for more than 4000 years
cycles: isolation, invasion, assimilation (what effect would the Himalayas have?)

          -  Dravidians, Aryan, Greeks, Gupta, Huns, Turks
          -  Muslims: Mongols, Mughals
many languages and religions 
Dravidians 3000 B.C.

Around the Indus River in 90 slides
Mohenjo Daro settlement founded in 3000 B.C. on banks 
of Indus River Mohenjo Daro slide show


1200 B.C. 
caste system

Hinduism   caste system


Buddhist beliefs          Four Noble Truths
Geography of Religion Basics

500 B.C. 
rejected caste system

 British Colonial Impacts in Southern Asia

  Breakdown of Mughal Dynasty 
  Trading expansion
  New route to India 
  British East India Company

British Indian Empire

  Established 1857
  new port cities
  strong core-periphery relationship
  cottage industries
  infrastructure development
  long term impacts: resources, land control, development, trade

Paths to Independence

  Indian National Congress (1885) 
  Muslim League (1906) 
  1920s: Gandhi and independence
  1940s: Muslims demand separate state
  1947 Independence: India, West and East Pakistan 


Physical Geography Map of South Asia

     - high mountains / plains & plateaus
     - hot & dry / hot & wet
     - desert / fertile river valleys



summer - low pressure 
winter - high pressure    Dynamics of Sea Breezes
dominance of warm climates and monsoonal precipitation
wide range of temperature and precipitation (10-400")
Why is there a warm instead of cold winter?

Thar Desert

World’s Highest Mountains

By what type tectonic activity did they form?

Himalayas, Sanskrit for "The Abode of Snow"

The Hindu Kush mountain system extends for 500 miles 
in parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan, reaching its highest
point in Pakistan's highlands.

What impact do the mountain chains have on climate? Migration? Culture?

Peninsular Hills and Plateaus

Ghats - hills on west and east coasts
Deccan Plateau - lava base
Why do the rivers on the peninsula flow east?

Major River Basins

Fertile lands
Why are river valleys very often fertile?

Ganges - sacred to Hindus


Dense tropical forests cover the seaward slopes of the Western Ghats Mountains in southern India. The forests thrive in the heavy rains that the summer monsoon season brings to the Western Ghats.
Forested India

Natural Resources and Economics 

What is the main natural resource, the one most valued and needed?
mineral wealth
energy shortage
How can this be?
infrastructure bottlenecks   India energy map

  agriculture - India can feed itself (why is this important?) 
  manufacturing - cottage industries, heavy industry (e.g., chemicals), computers 

Environmental Problems
Dynamic natural environment:
rapid modification 
forest destruction, poor cultivation --> soil erosion 
industry, urbanization, dams --> water, air pollution 

Economic Growth and Environmental Problems

How does economic growth affect the natural environment of Southern Asia?
How does population increase affect it?

Population pressures
Green Revolution
Rapid economic growth 
Ganges River  Ganga Action Plan


Border Dispute Over Kashmir: Pakistan, India, and China
Images of Kashmir
Map of Pakistan
Jammu Kashmir Liberation Front

  India and claims Kashmir
  Majority in Kashmir are Muslims
  On what basis does Pakistan justify its claim to Jammu &Kashmir? 
  Pakistan's forward capital of Islamabad 
  India and Pakistan -- nuclear weapons tests 
What impact does the possession of nuclear capability by India and Pakistan have on the nature of the dispute? 

Jama Masjid mosque