INSTRUMENTATION FOR THE DETECTION OF
LOW INTENSITY BIORADIATION

 

___________________
A Masterís Thesis
Presented to
The School of Graduate Studies
Department of Physics
Indiana State University
Terre Haute, Indiana

 

________________________
In Partial Fulfillment
Of the Requirement for the
Master of Science Degree
________________________
By
Xiaorong Lu
May 2000

 

 
APPROVAL SHEET

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABSTRACT

 

The investigation of this thesis provides an instrumentation system capable of detecting low intensity bioradiation - namely spontaneously emitted photons from biological samples, also called biophotons.

Based on introduction of quantum fluctuation, virtual particles, Casimir Effect, sonoluminescence and quantum vacuum radiation, this thesis theoretically analyzes the

possible origin of bioradiation. Next an instrumentation system to detect low intensity bioradiation is designed. The system was based on the development of a previously existing experimental system in The Department Physics, Indiana State University.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This thesis was strongly supported by my advisor,

Dr. Torsten Alvager. The author would like to take this opportunity to acknowledge Dr. Torsten Alvager for his invaluable advice and direction in pursuing this research, not only academically but also morally. Thanks for the time and patience of my thesis committee, Dr. Valentina French and Dr. John Swez. The author also wants to express thanks to faculty of department. Without them, it would not have been possible for the author to complete research.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

ABSTRACT

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

LIST OF FIGURES

CHAPTER

    1. INTRODUCTION
      1. Statement of Purpose
      2. Importance of Study
      3. Methodology of Study
    1. BACKGROUND
    2. 2.1 Sources of Light Emission

      2.2 Sonoluminescence

      2.3 Phosphorescence

      2.4 Fluorescence

      2.5 Bioluminescence

      2.6 Superradiance

      2.7 Chemiluminescence

      2.8 Biophotons

      2.9 Casimir Effect

      2.10 Virtual Particles

      2.11 The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

      2.12 Quantum Vacuum Radiation

      2.13 Cosmic Radiation

      1. Fluorescence Lifetime Measurement
3. INSTRUMENTATION
      1. Distriminator
      2. Amplifier
      3. Scaler
      4. Timer
      5. Power Supply
      6. Delay Box
      7. Time to Pulse Height Converter
      8. Time-to-Amplitude Converter (TAC)

      9. Multichannel Analyzer
      10. Photomultiplier Tube
      11. Instrumentation System Setup
    1. APPLICATION OF INSTRUMENTATION
      1. Detection of Biophoton Emission
      2. From Partial Transparent Samples

          1. Experiment
          2. Analysis
         

         

      3. Randomness Analysis of Random Sequences Recorded From Instrumentation Using Neural Network Method
          1. Method
          2. Conclusion
  1. DISCUSSION
BIBLOGRAPHY

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURES PAGE

2.1 Casmir Effect

2.2 Casimir Effect Experiment

2.3 Virtual Particles

2.4 Radiation Emitted from

Charges Accelerated

    1. System Setup of Fluorescence
Lifetime Measurement
    1. Effect of Discriminator Threshold
On Signal Amplitude 3.2 The Basic Principle of Overlap Coincidence Circuit
    1. Pulse Amplitude / Delay Time
Relationship 3.4 Functional Block Diagram of Multichannel Analyzer 3.5 Principle of PMT

3.6 PMT Detector: Main Part of System

3.7 Instrumentation System Setup

4.1 Counting for Sample 1 Background

4.2 Counting for Sample 1

    1. Counting for Sample 2 Background
    2. Counting for Sample 2
    3. Counting for Sample 3 Background
    4. Counting for Sample 3
4.7 Representation of Axis
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
LIST OF TABLES

TABLES PAGE

4.1 Background

4.2 Sample 1 (lettus leaf)

4.3 Sample 2 (fish eggs)

    1. Sample 3 (half transparent fish)
    2. Number of hidden layers and times of
learning for computer generated random

sequence and instrumentation generated

random sequence at Reconstruction

Error = 0.01.