CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
    1. Statement of Purpose
    Spontaneously emitted photons from biological materials are called biophotons.  They are independent from outside stimulation.  Biophotons were first discovered in 1923 by a Russian medical scientist named Professor Alexander G. Gurvich In the 1930s they were widely researched in Europe and the USA Since the 1970s biophotons have been rediscovered in many experimental and theoretical investigations by European scientists. In 1974 German biophysicist Fritz-Albert Popp proved their existence, their origin from the DNA, and later their coherence.  He then developed biophoton theory to explain their possible biological role. [1]

    Biophotons are ultraweak photon emissions of biological systems. They are made up of weak electromagnetic waves in the optical range of the spectrum.  All living cells of plants, animals, and human beings emit biophotons that cannot be seen by the naked eye but that can be measured by special equipment. This light emission is an expression of the functional state of a living organism; therefore, its measurement can be used to assess the cell's functional state. Cancer cells and healthy cells of the same type may also be discriminated by obvious differences in biophoton emission.

    According to quantum mechanics, the energy of quantum fluctuations can cause virtual particles spontaneously to flash into existence The particles that arise as matter-antimatter twins can interact, but must, in accordance with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, disappear within an interval set by Planck's constant.[2] The above theory was proved by the Casimir Effect: two uncharged, perfectly parallel, conducting metal surfaces automatically attract one another if they get close enough.[3] This effect was first observed by Steve K. Lamoreaux, who relied on a torsion pendulum to determine the existence of an attractive force.[2]

    When these virtual particles are accelerated,or when they move nonlinearly, light of paired photons is emitted that is called quantum vacuum radiation.[4] On the level of quantum electrodynamics, radiation comes from moving charges that form an assembly of dipoles.  Real photons are created only when the dielectric moves nonuniformly, because the fluctuations then will not average to zero.

    Macroscopically neutral objects can temporarily be charged in the form of virtually emitted and absorbed particles such as electron-positron pairs.  If these pairs move nonlinearly, or if they are accelerated, light will be emitted.  Based on this theory, bioradiation can also be interpreted as a kind of quantum vacuum radiation.

The purpose of this research is to design an instrumentation system to detect low intensity bioradiation.

1.2 Importance of The Study

    According to a quantum mechanics explanation, biophotons are photons of light produced by nonuniform interactions of virtual particle pairs such as electron positron pairs in biological tissues. Many scientists are now working on biophoton detection[10]-[12] with different measurement techniques. The detection of biophotons is very important as biophoton light is stored in the cells of organisms or in the DNA molecules of their nuclei.  A dynamic web of light, constantly released and absorbed by the DNA, may connect cells, tissues, and organs within the body, and may serve as the organism's main communication network.  The structure and regulating activity of the biophoton field can possibly be used to explain the characteristics and processes of growth, differentiation, and regeneration.

    In this research, a new detection system is designed that is structurally different from previous systems.  Experimental research will be carried out on this system's characteristics to prove its feasibility.

 

1.3 Methodology of Study

    Based on the introduction of quantum fluctuations, virtual particles, the Casimir Effect, sonoluminescence, and quantum vacuum radiation, this thesis analyzes the possible origin of bioradiation and experimentally designs an instrumentation system to detect low intensity bioradiation.

    The Time Coincidence Method is the measurement technique used in this study.  This means that when only two events occur (one coming from each photomultiplier and meeting within the resolution time of the coincidence analyzer), an emission of can light be counted.  Because the light emission from bioradiation is extremely low, an amplifier unit is needed.  A software controlled Multi-channel Analyzer is used to store and evaluate the counting data and to provide flexibility in data acquisition.  Discriminators are also needed in order to get rid of low frequency signals.