CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
    1. Statement of Purpose
The spontaneously emitted photons from biological materials are called biophotons which are independent of outside stimulation. Biophotons were first discovered by Russian medical scientist Professor Alexander G. Gurvich in 1923 and were widely researched in Europe and the USA in 1930s. Since 1970s biophotons have been rediscovered by ample experimental and theoretical evidence by European scientists. In 1974 German biophysicist Fritz-Albert Popp proved their existence, their origin from the DNA and later their coherence and developed biophoton theory to explain their possible biological role. [1]

Biophotons are ultraweak photon emissions of biological systems. They are weak electromagnetic waves in the optical range of the spectrum. All living cells of plants, animals and human beings emit biophotons which cannot be seen by the naked eye but can be measured by special equipment. This light emission is an expression of the functional state of the living organism; therefore, its measurement therefore could be used to assess the cell's state. Cancer cells and healthy cells of the same type may also be discriminated by obvious differences in biophoton emission.

According to Quantum Mechanics, virtual particles can spontaneously flash into existence from the energy of quantum fluctuations. The particles which arise as matter-antimatter twins can interact but must, in accordance with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, disappear within an interval set by Planck's constant. [2] The above theory was proven by the Casimir Effect: Two uncharged, perfectly parallel, conducting metal surfaces automatically attract one another if they get close enough. [3] The effect was observed by Steve K. Lamoreaux, who relied on a torsion pendulum to find the existence of attractive force. [2]

When these virtual particles are accelerated or in other words, they move nonlinearly, light of paired photons is emitted which is called quantum vacuum radiation. [4] On the level of quantum electrodynamics, radiation comes from moving charges that form assembly of dipoles. Real photons are created only when the dielectric moves nonuniformly, because the fluctuations will not average to zero.

Macroscopically neutral objects can temporarily be charged in the form of virtually emitted and absorbed particles such as electron-positron pairs. If these pairs move nonlinearly or are accelerated, light will be emitted. Based on the theory, bioradiation can also be interpreted as a kind of quantum vacuum radiation.

The purpose of this research is to design an instrumentation system to detect low intensity bioradiation.

1.2 Importance of Study

According to quantum mechanics explanation, biophotons are photons of light produced by nonuniform interaction of virtual particle pairs such as electron positron pairs in biological tissues. Many scientists are working on biophoton detection [10]-[12] with different measurement techniques. Detection of biophoton is very important as biophoton light is stored in the cells of the organism or in the DNA molecules of their nuclei. Dynamic web of light constantly released and absorbed by the DNA may connect cells, tissues and organs within the body and serve as the organism's main communication network. The structure and regulating activity of the biophoton field can possibly be used to explain the characteristics and process of growth, differentiation and regeneration.

In this research, a new detection system is designed which is different from previous system in structure. Experimental research will be carried out on system characteristics to prove its feasibility.

 

1.3 Methodology of Study

Based on introduction of quantum fluctuation, virtual particles, Casimir Effect, sonoluminescence and quantum vacuum radiation, this thesis analyzes the possible origin of bioradiation and experimentally designes an instrumentation system to detect low intensity rioradiation.

Time coincidence method is the measurement technique. That means only when two events coming from each photomultiplier meet within the resolving time of coincidence analyzer can an emission of light be counted. Because the light emission from bioradiation is extremely low, amplifier unit is needed. Software controlled Multi-channel Analyzer is used to store and evaluate counting data and to provide complete flexibility in data acquisition. Discriminators are also needed in order to get rid of low frequency signals.